Whenever you encounter a situation where it is difficult to segregate truth from false hood, logical arguments can save you from making a wrong decision. Logic is different from thinking or intuition. Logic is more systematic. There are different logical arguments which can make us better person in terms of thinking and using our brain. Knowledge of logical fallacies and arguments can enhance your analytical skills.
Logical deductive argument is made up of a premises and a conclusion. If all the premises are correct and logical, conclusion will be true if it follows logically from premises. Let us consider an example:
If A=B and B=C
Then conclusion is A=C.
A=B and B=C are our premises, if both premises are correct then the conclusion that A=C is also correct.
To understand it better, let us take real life example.
Premises-I: 0 deg. C= 32 F,
And Premises-II: 32F = 273.15 Kelvin,
This implies, Conclusion; 0 deg. C = 273.15 Kelvin.
Since premises I & II are correct, thus, conclusion is also correct.
Fallacies can be defined as common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. There are different kinds of fallacies which people use knowingly or unknowingly while debating. You can enhance your debating skills by learning about them. Some are mentioned below:
Circular Argument: Those arguments which does not have any end. It starts from the end itself. Instead of actually proving your point you make your point and call it a proof. It is a fallacy because you reach nowhere in your debate. Example: Suppose Wasil is a brave man, since he is a brave man he cannot commit suicide. Hence it is a murder.
Argument from ignorance: If you do not have evidence of something being not correct, it does not mean necessarily that something is right. In Argument from ignorance fallacy, absence of evidence becomes evidence of absence. For example: No one know what will happen after we die, that’s prove there is no afterlife.
Ad hominem: You attacked your opponent’s character or personal traits in an attempt to undermine their argument. Ad hominem attacks can take the form of overtly attacking somebody, or more subtly casting doubt on their character or personal attributes as a way to discredit their argument. The result of an ad hominem attack can be to undermine someone’s case without actually having to engage with it.
Example: After Nandita presents a compelling case for a more equitable GST system, FM asks the audience whether we should believe anything from a woman who isn’t married, was once arrested, and smells a bit weird.
Special pleading: Applying one standard on one group of people and using another standard on other group without proper justification is known as special pleading.
You think you are very smart when you speak a lie and and get away with it, however, sometimes your elders, your loved one’s or your boss knew that you are lying but do not correct you because they do not want you to feel embarrass. Your elders pass through same age and conditions as you are going through. If you think other persons are fool, you are the fool. Below are some lies we often speak thinking we are very smart but actually we are not!
- I will reach in five minutes. Truth: I will reach in half hour.
- Everything is finish in my life. Truth: I need your consolation.
- I will start from tomorrow. Truth: I will never start it.
- I will be late there is a traffic jam. I am still at home.
- I was sick yesterday. Truth: I was watching football match at home.
- I do not have money. Truth: I have, but not for you.
- I will be late; my car broke down on the way. Truth: I have to finish some personal work.
- Honey, I have to work overtime today. Truth: Honey, I have one more affair.
- Mom, I have an extra class today. Truth: Mom, I find a girlfriend.
- I love you till the last breathe of my life. Truth: Night promises are broken at daybreak.
A funny Incident:
Boss (shouting loudly): Was that truck red or white?
Employee: Sir rrrr red.
Boss: Are you sure?
Employee: No, it think it was white.
Boss (getting mad): I am asking final time, what was the color of that damn truck??
Employee: umm, blue.
“Life is like an Ice cream, enjoy it before it melts!”
When there is night in the west, there is a day in the East. Therefore, earth remain bright all the time. Similarly, in our life every situation has bright side and a dull side. We just need to try to see the bright side.
To live a happy life stop making detailed long-term planning. Live in today, care for today and do today’s work today. Future is very unpredictable, so do not plan much about future. You do not know what tomorrow will bring for you. Do not spent today, dreaming about tomorrow.
As we grow older, even in our 40’s, our perception about world and life change. What we thought as important, no longer remain important for us after just twenty years. You will be different you after every years. If you have to enjoy, enjoy today. If you have to work, work today. If you have to live, live today.
“Life is short, make it sweet. Do not put all the flowers for your grave.”
Close your eyes, and think for a moment that this life is first and the last chance for you to make your mark on earth! Are you doing your best? Look at animals, they breed, eat, drink, sleep, breath and finally die. They do not have even half of intelligence that human has, still they do more than half of similar works we do in our life. We breed, eat, drink, sleep, breath and finally die.
What is the benefit of being most intelligent species on earth if we live same life as animals do? What we achieved in last 10, 000 years is nothing compare to what we could have achieved if every human had contributed equally. Just look at the below pictures and think, how many Einstein and Newton’s we have lost.
Why Creator gave us so much intelligence if he wanted us to live like this? No true religion can degrade humans to this level. A true religion must teach us how to live an organised, progressive, purposeful, meaningful and happy life. It should treat everyone equal. No slavery, no caste system, no difference between black and white. When Creator created everyone, there should not be any difference. All humans must be treated equal.
Present population of earth exceeds seven billion. How many persons do you know? If you are well-informed and socially and politically active, you might know maximum of 1000 persons by name and recognise their face too. What about other 6.9999 billion people? Are they live on some other planet?
World knows only those people who are famous and those who achieved something in their life. We all have equal potential to grow and to succeed in life, however, only few of us dare to take calculated risk. Still few dream and think big. And least of us never give up. They are those who change the world.
Human mind has tremendous power. We only need to realise it, focus on it and channelized it in right direction. You can change the world. You just need to believe in your capabilities. A wise man is one who has full control of himself. Before knowing other things, you must know yourself. You can do whatever you want to do. Believe in yourself and think before acting. Do not wait for tomorrow to start anything. Do it now. First plan it and then execute your plan.
Nothing is impossible for a determined person. Never underestimate yourself. Never be afraid of challenges life throws towards you. Only tough situation brings out best of you. Treat every problem as an opportunity.
Human beings are superior to all creatures, because of our ability to reason and self-control in any situation.
Except few Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia, Potable alcohol generally known as Wine or Liquor is on sale every where with various names like Scotch, champagne, Brandy, Whisky, Jin, Rum, Tequila, vodka and beer. Whatever be the name, all Alcoholic beverages are addictive and harmful.
Yearly Expenditure on advertisement of Liquor: As reported on multinational monitor website “Alcohol companies spend close to $2 billion every year advertising in the United States alone. From 2001 to 2007, they aired more than 2 million television ads and published more than 20,000 magazine advertisements.”
Health Hazard of Consuming Alcohol: According to WHO report, “alcohol consumption has been identiﬁ ed as carcinogenic for the following cancer categories (Baan et al., 2007): cancers of the colorectum, female breast, larynx, liver, oesophagus, oral cavity and pharynx. The higher the consumption of alcohol, the greater the risk for these cancers: even the consumption of two drinks per day causes an increased risk for some cancers, such as breast cancer (Hamajima et al., 2002).”
According to an estimate, around 2.5 million people die yearly because of over indulgence of Alcholic beverages. In US alone, each year, approximately 5,000 young people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking; this includes about 1,900 deaths from motor vehicle crashes, 1,600 as a result of homicides, 300 from suicide, as well as hundreds from other injuries such as falls, burns, and drownings.
Social Evil of Consuming Alcohol:
- Drunken drive: Alcohol is not only harmful to the person consuming it but also to other persons who are not consuming it. It is very hard to drink in control way. Especially during parties, people over drink and drive back to home and make accidents. When they come out of their hangover, they found themselves in police lockup with charges of killing someone.
- Teenage Alcoholism: In US alone, each year, approximately 5,000 young people under the age of 21 die as a result of underage drinking; this includes about 1,900 deaths from motor vehicle crashes, 1,600 as a result of homicides, 300 from suicide, as well as hundreds from other injuries such as falls, burns, and drownings. Huge spending on liquor ads is primary cause of teenage alcoholism. Secondary cause is culture and tradition of some countries where alcohol consumption is not considered bad because of religious reasons.
- Domestic Violence: Domestic violence due to excessive alcohol drinking is common in developing countries like India where drinking is not strictly against religion. In Vadas and other Hindu scriptures, gods shown to consume Somrasa aka wine. Most of poor and middle class man came home in night after drinking and beat wife for trivial issues. In morning, they apologise and life goes on like that.
We should not make ourselves slaves to our own habits. You may try to drink wine in a controlled way, but wine is actually habit forming, and someday, if you want wine and cannot find any, you will feel annoyed. Wine may have benefits, if consumed in a controlled way, but it is most often not possible to drink in a controlled way. When you are drunk, you may lose control and even consciousness, but you are still responsible for your actions, including actions which you will do unknowingly. There are many cases of drunken drivers killing people by accident and then repenting for their whole lives for that one mistake. We should not indulge in anything habit forming, especially anything which makes us lose control or consciousness. Unfortunately, wine does both. So it is better to be avoided completely (or at least to drink in such a small quantity that you do not ever lose control or consciousness). Preferably, it should be consumed at home, at night, and, again, in small quantities. But, truly, it is much better if you avoid it altogether from the beginning, because once you start consuming alcohol, you will become enslaved and never know when you will break your own rule. There are people who say that we each must try everything. This is a ridiculous way to justify drinking alcohol. If we must try everything, will you now try drinking urine? Or sewage water? Or bitter-gourd juice ? It is great to try something new if it is good for us. But something which is habit forming is a terrible thing to try. My German boss, who loved beer more than anything, used to skip antibiotics when he fell sick because he didn’t want to give up drinking beer, and the two can’t be consumed together. Is that not pathetic? I repeat: Do not enslave yourself to any habit-forming and/or unhealthy thing. We can enjoy the world as long as we are healthy. So we must take good care of our bodies
In every era, some myth and superstitions prevailed. Even though we are living in the age of science and technology, even today you can find new types of myth. It is difficult to prove whether Aliens visiting earth is a similar myth or reality, but there is no conclusive evidence of any Alien visiting earth.
Stories of Alien abductions and sighting UFO’s (unidentified flying object) started in the beginning of 20th century. Until the mid of 20th century, extraterrestrial life became one of the popular subject of Hollywood movies. Later, people started serious studies and search for aliens not only on earth but also in outer space by sending radio waves in outer space with coded messages.
In last 70 years, no scientist has ever been able to find even a shred of evidence about extraterrestrial life or their visit to earth. All those who claimed that UFO abducted them were unable to produce anything spectacular to prove their claim. There are few blurred photograph and video’s of UFO’s flying in sky. However, most of photograph and videos were made by using trick photography and were rejected by skeptics studying the claims.
Alien visit is not logically coherent to reality. A civilization far advance then ours can reach to us. If they are so advance, then they have no reason to hide. They can contact us without landing on earth. They can study our culture using radio waves emitted from television broadcast.
New religions were made based on meeting with alien. Every year new movies are screened about aliens. Which gives rise to this hype of Alien visiting earth.
I always wonder, why alien abduction stories are mostly occur in western countries and not so often in Asian countries. In Asian countries Ghost, demon and Jins are more prevalent.
Human brain is a complex organ. In many cases, it can make you hallucinate about things that you continuously think about or hear a lot. A hallucination may be a sensory experience in which a person can see, hear, smell, taste, or feel something that is not there.
There is another interesting aspect of human nature. We tend to believe what is favorable to our faith or align to our thinking. Suppose, if I tell a Chinese I saw a Dragan in the ocean when I went for deep diving, he might believe me but if I tell the same story to any European who do not believe in dragons, he will call it rubbish straightforward. Similarly, in Europe if a Christian talk about his personal experience where he saw and talk with Jesus, every Christian will believe him. However, if same person said, “I saw Prophet Mohammad in my dream”. No one will believe him in Christian majority countries.
As stated earlier, when we have to believe things without evidence, we tend to believe what is in line with our thoughts.
In western countries, many educated people believe that life does not originate on earth but it came from outer space. In addition, most of scientist and ordinary people believe that there must be many other planets where life must be flourishing. With this mind set, when a person find any abnormal thing he will connect it with Alien. A good example is crop circle and pyramids. People thought both were made by Aliens, but debunked later.
In India, if people find something abnormal, they associate it will ghost or demon. Muslims believe in Jins. They associate abnormal behaviors to Jins. Near Madina, KSA, there is a place called Wadi-E-Jin. Even if you stop engine of car your car will move forward. When you see the road, you will not find any slop. Local people believe that it is cause by Jins.
There are no confirmed reports of Aliens landed on earth.When evidence are absent, it is proper to be skeptic about Aliens and UFO’s.