Cars: Fuel cell Vs Electric

Electric car-makers like Tesla, are constructing mega factories for mass production of Li-ion batteries to reduce the price of cars. On other hand Japanese companies are investing heavily on hydrogen Fuel cell technology. This race is not about who will come first, rather who will sustain in global market finally. Presently and decisively Electric vehicle driven by Li-ion batteries are leading the trend with reduction in battery pack price and increase use of solar energy. Electric vehicles made lot of improvement in recent time. Much of it can be attributed to Tesla-first electric car-maker who took concept of electric cars much seriously than any other car-maker. They set very high standard for electric cars and make much needed improvement to compete with traditional IC engine cars running on gasoline. Charging time reduced from hours to several minutes. Mileage too increased considerably. All these improvement made Electric Vehicle ( EV) a better solution to IC engine causing pollution. EV do not cause air or sound pollution and they are safe car. However, they need electricity to charge batteries. Sometimes electricity is produced by burning coal, which again cause pollution. Solar power is a workable solution. However, with present efficiency of solar cell, it will be difficult to fulfill future domestic demand. Thus, electric vehicles are not the best solution for future in developing countries where managing domestic electricity demand is a challenge.

In future, people will prefer car with inbuilt energy powerhouse. A car, which can run longer than normal electric vehicle and IC engine without creating pollution and have a safe quick re-filling. As soon as hydrogen or any other fuel cell meet these criteria then that will be the turning point in history of Fuel cell vehicle (FCV). At present, peoples are concern about safety of using hydrogen as fuel. Of course, electric vehicle are safest compared to FC and IC engine. Nevertheless, with advancement in technology, fuel cell will become safer than IC engine, which we used for decades. The biggest obstacle for fuel cell cars is filling station, which require lot of money in establishment. Without filling stations, no one will buy such cars. Slowly but surely as filling station will increase, demand for FCV will increase too. With improvement in technology and mass production, price of cars fitted with Fuel cell will decrease considerably.

As we have saying, “Slow and steady wins the race” it is possible that future belongs to Fuel cell Vehicle. Batteries are temporary solution. If we find a way to fill a vehicle directly from hydrogen cylinders then we can cut off expansive filling station requirement too.Normally a FCV requires 35-90 MPA pressure. In market, cylinders are available up to 90MPa as well. We only need a hose pipe with connector to fill the Car tank. Some innovative ideas required to make FCT a feasible reality. Japan is investing hugely to make improvement in fuel cell. Only future will tell which technology will pass the test of time.

(Edited and revised version of previous post)

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India must focus on STEM for its Future

I am not talking about Stem cells! STEM stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Indians are champion in mathematics, thus we have to focus on Science and Technology. We have to create atmosphere of innovation and learning. Education should be made more practical rather than memorizing mare facts and information to pass exams.

A new revolution is required in Education system. In New Delhi, Mr. Manish Sisodia (Deputy Chief Minister of Delhi since February 2015) is doing remarkable work in the field of education. Whole India should follow the same model. Schools must use videos and audio for teaching. Fifth graders must have own laptops. Internet should be compulsory in schools. If any student fail in exam even after attending 90% of classes, Teachers must be hold responsible. Students should be taught about practical use of subject they are learning. More budgets should be allocated for education.

US education policy figure out STEM as most important educational areas where more students and teachers are requires keeping US on top of world. https://www.ed.gov/stem

These four areas hold immense potential in future and present. Only those countries ruled the world who respected talent and invested in innovation and new research. USA is not no.1 because she is rich in natural resources, but because every talented person is welcome in US and they spent billions of dollars on research and development. US, China, Japan are top three countries having maximum nos. of International Patent in 2017. US is world largest economy and China is fastest emerging economy making one to one correlation between nos. of Patent and economic prosperity and growth. India does not make in the list of top ten.

No one will stop you if you keep dreaming to make India super power or at least developed country in next ten years or by 2030. However, it will not change anything. Blaming government too will not change anything. After all we, the citizen of India, choose our own government to destroy our own country. India is a democratic country. Power is in the hand of citizens. We do not need revolution to change government. We just need to vote sensibly. We need to understand that government is for developing country, not for making Temples and Mosque. Religion is a private affair; we can take care for it. Government must do what it is supposed to do i.e. developing and building infrastructure, border security, making and implementing national & International policies, controlling inflation, strengthening law and order, housing for poor’s and subsidy to farmers etc.

India is a young country. When I was 21, I use to think that within ten years India will be developed country. But nothing changed. We are actually moving backward. Unemployment is at highest. People are applying for Peon jobs after doing graduation and post-graduation. Tolerance is at lowest level. Rich are becoming richer and poor farmers are committing suicide. Instead of controlling population, peoples are advocating to produce more children. We can change all this by the power of our vote.

Cast your vote based on past performance of government not on what they are promising for future. Politicians never fulfilled their promises. Do not vote for the party. Vote for right candidate. An honest person, who do not have any previous criminal record and he must be educated. If Election commission or government cannot set the rules for politicians, we have to set our own standards.

FUTURE: Electric Cars Vs Fuel Cell Cars.

On one hand, electric car-makers are constructing mega factories for mass production of Li-ion batteries on other hand Japanese companies are investing heavily on hydrogen Fuel cell technology. This race is not about who will come first, rather who will sustain in global market finally. Presently and decisively Electric vehicle driven by Li-ion batteries are leading the trend with reduction in battery pack price and increase use of solar energy. Electric vehicles made lot of improvement in recent time. Much of it can be attributed to Tesla-first electric carmaker who took concept of electric cars much seriously than any other carmaker. They set very high standard for electric cars and make much needed improvement to compete with traditional IC engine cars running on gasoline. Charging time reduced from hours to several minutes. Mileage too increases considerably. All these improvement made EV a better solution to IC engine causing pollution. EV do not cause air or sound pollution and is a safe car. However, they need electricity. Sometimes electricity is produced by burning coal, which again cause pollution. Solar power is a workable solution. However, with present efficiency of solar cell, it will be difficult to fulfill future domestic demand. Thus, electric vehicles are not the best solution for future in developing countries.

In future, people will prefer car with inbuilt energy powerhouse. A car, which can run longer than normal electric vehicle and IC engine without creating pollution and have a safe quick re-filling. As soon as hydrogen or any other fuel cell meet these criteria then that will be the turning point in history of Fuel cell vehicle (FCV). At present, peoples are concern about safety of using hydrogen as fuel. Of course, electric vehicle are safest compared to FC and IC engine. Nevertheless, with advancement in technology, fuel cell will become safer than IC engine, which we used for decades. The biggest obstacle for fuel cell cars is filling station, which require lot of money in establishment. Without filling stations, no one will buy such cars. Slowly but surely as filling station will increase, demand for FCV will increase too. With improvement in technology and mass production, price of cars fitted with Fuel cell will decrease considerably.

As we have saying, “Slow and steady wins the race” it is possible that future belongs to FCV. Batteries are temporary solution. If we find a way to fill a vehicle directly from hydrogen cylinders then we can cut off expansive filling station requirement to hydrogen cylinder storage depot.Normally a FCV requires 35-90 MPA pressure. In market, cylinders are available up to 90MPa as well. We only need a hose pipe with connector to fill the Car tank. Some innovative ideas required to make FCT a feasible reality.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (PART-1: Introduction)

 

As we usher in new century, we entered a new world-a world of artificial intelligence. Though people were working on AI from last 50 years or so but only now we are able to see practical application and fast development in this area. AI is the simulation of intelligent behaviour in computers using programming. That means AI imitates human intelligence without emotional interference. Since the programming is based on lot of research data AI can perform better than human. AI machines beaten human in games like chess and Go. Silently they are entering our daily life. If you use iPhone you must be familiar with siri- an AI application.

Artificial Intelligence is still in developing stage. Yet many Peoples find it dangerous for human kind. Their intuitions might be right. There are two ways AI research can proceed in future. One is called slow takeoff and other is fast takeoff. A slow takeoff is a situation in which AI goes from sub-human to human to superhuman intelligence very gradually. We will have enough time to study dangers associated with it and to remove those dangers. But in fast take off in few years we will develop super artificial intelligence and that will not give us enough time to study, understand and restrict dangers associated with it. We can not predict behaviour of anything which is more intelligent than us. Presently all data suggest medium to fast takeoff because all big companies and developed countries are spending billions of dollars on it. Within ten years we might reached  singularity a term used for AI reaching human brain power.

Machine learning is another major part of AI. Learning without any kind of supervision requires an ability to identify patterns in streams of inputs. It is much more like how a baby learns to interact with world. I find it more powerful than AI based on programming every known thing. Because in that case you cannot expect more than what you input and intelligence of machine is dependent on programmer intelligence. If programmer is not careful enough, machine will make mistake. But in machine learning, based on sensors machine learn itself from its surrounding. It gives machine ability to learn from data without programming it explicitly. This process is slow but has more potential in long-term. We might be able to make a machine which can answer some of the ultimate questions which we can’t answer because of our limited capabilities.  Google Deep mind uses reinforcement learning and thus it can improve itself. Alpha Go made by Google deep mind division already beat human in Chinese game of Go which is much difficult than chess.

to be continued in Part-II

ROBOTS (Humanoid): What You Must Know About Future

 

 

Moshe Vardi, a professor of computer science at Rice University in Texas said, “Society needs to confront this question before it is upon us: If machines are capable of doing almost any work humans can do, what will humans do?

Sam Harris, the co-founder and CEO of Project Reason, said on his podcast Waking Up. “Ultimately, if we manage to build truly labor-saving devices, devices that don’t simply open up a space for new forms of human labor, but devices that actually cancel the need for human labor (and I think we’re doing that), then you really have the ultimate recipe for an intolerable degree for wealth inequality.

http://bigthink.com/natalie-shoemaker/robots-will-steal-our-jobs-but-is-that-such-a-bad-thing

 

Being a Mechanical Engineer, above questions bothers me sometimes. Automation and Robotics, at present, is not killing jobs but rather replacing low skilled jobs to high skilled jobs. Suppose you automate a factory. Entire labor is replacing by machine. But to run machines you need operators and you also need Engineers and technicians for maintenance. On other hand, automation is supporting another industry where these machines are being made. We need more workforce to convert ore into metal. So machines are creating more jobs for skilled workers. Uneducated, unskilled are becoming jobless and more jobs for skilled workers. This is the present situation. Future will be different.

By Year 2070, We will have self-maintained human like Robots working on renewable energy. Equipped with AI. Such self-sufficient robots will work better than human and will not demand money or increment in salary. Boon for rich industrialist but danger for human labor. Rich will become richer and poor will be poorer. Some human will get paid for creative works. For example: Even today we buy handicrafts when we already have high quality stuff made by machines available in market. Animation will replace human actors from movies. Robots will be very expensive and most of the rich people’s will be able to buy one or two of them. Every year new models will arrive in market and robot manufacturer will be the richest people along with those companies producing software and hardware parts of robots. There is a misconception that the first human to be replaced by robots were labor! But it might not be true because no one will buy an expensive robot to replace unskilled labor. Actually these smart robots will replace high salaried and high skilled managers, engineers, doctors and those who are working in dangerous situations like soldiers and workers who works in chemical and radioactive areas.  Only those peoples will survive who can buy robots or have some creative and intellectual abilities. For every other work there will be robots. Even for prostitution there will be sexy robots. Maximum one person will run entire company. As technology will become cheaper, more companies will start making cheaper robots and this will be the time when we will be having robots for our house work and labor class. This will create biggest difference between rich and poor ever existed in human history. Sam Harris is right in his assertion. if we do not act now, situation will be very different and sad for coming generations.

Robot will work and get paid on behalf of the owner (who will already be rich) of robot. Owner of robot will sit and enjoy. On other hand, only those poor will survive for little longer who will have land for farming for themselves.

Time makes impossible things possible:    

Year 2100: Self Reproducing robot. One of the fundamental trait of life is reproduction. Such robots will be alive if ever formed. They will either replace the humans or there will be very few families across the globe controlling them. Induced artificial evolution will select robots over humans based on survival for the fittest. The time for asking question like should machines replace human is gone, because such question was already answered and settled in favor of machines. Human creative mind has carving for challenges. We will not stop until we destroy our self or leave to the stars.

Of course, all this is predicted considering everything else as static in future. But revolutionary ideas and new reforms are part of human civilization. Such reforms change the course of future entirely. There was no time in history where one innovation dictated the whole future course of action. If any new reform took place at global level, then we might be having a different future. A much batter world with minimal difference between rich and poor. Where villages will grow like cities. Every child will have access to education and good life, every old man and women will be taken care by. A future we all want for our coming generations, not a future entrusted by few for their greed in the name of technology.